The difficulty with translating the following work is more subtle than the sort which normally maddens translators. Scholars of the Rig Veda or the Dao de Jing might languish over replicating lyrical structure, tying down floating idioms, sharpening dull verbs, foot-noteing hapax legomena, and gently rendering subtle tense changes, all into a tongue exotic to the ancient sages who mysteriously produced and collated them. But here, the very choice to publish an English translation was controversial. Chico Valle spoke English, and over 40% of the original text was in English. Valle was a polyglot and, as he once said for the BBC, "I will not render in good English conversation that happened in bad Milanese or bad Ethiopian." How then can any English translation be more than a vandalism of the artist's work?Valle's English was not the the English of the Anglosphere. His stands uniquely, as Reginald Wright has previously noted, showing plainly his influences. The refined state English of his father, mixed in with assorted diction of Joyce, Kipling and Kentridge. His Portuguese and Italian are more natural, and reflect his upbringing in Cadiz and his maturity in Milan, but his English is characterized by an uneven and at times clumsy style, that still managed to preform with subtly and depth, if not grace.Indian Summer is held in high academic and critical regard, but has had the least commercial success. This is in now small part due to the language issue. Because of it's constantly shifting tongue, the book becomes inaccessible to all but the most accomplished polyglots and scholars. It is the intent of this edition to introduce this wild and brilliant work to the Anglosphere.